حوالہ جات

حوالہ جات
حوالہ جات

[1] Banerjee, M., et al. “Insights of Spermicidal Research: An Update.” Journal of Fertilization: In vitro – IVF-Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology, 2014, www.longdom.org/open-access/insights-of-spermicidal-research-an-update-2375-4508.1000138.pdf. Accessed August 2023.

[2] “Chapter 16: Spermicides and Diaphragms.” Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers, 2022, fphandbook.org/chapter-16-spermicides-and-diaphragms. Accessed August 2023.

[3] Shoupe, D. “Barrier Contraceptives: Male Condoms, Vaginal Spermicides, and Cervical Barrier Methods.” The Handbook of Contraception: A Guide for Practical Management, 2016, eknygos.lsmuni.lt/springer/677/147-177.pdf. Accessed August 2023.

[4] “How Effective: Spermicides?” Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers, 2022, fphandbook.org/how-effective-spermicides. Accessed August 2023.

[5] “Canadian Contraception Consensus Chapter 5: Barrier Methods.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 2015, www.jogc.com/article/S1701-2163(16)39376-8/pdf. Accessed August 2023.

[6] “Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers.” World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs, 2018, apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/260156/9780999203705-eng.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed August 2023.

[7] Xia, M., et al. “DL-Mandelic acid exhibits high sperm-immobilizing activity and low vaginal irritation: A potential non-surfactant spermicide for contraception.” Science Direct, 2020, reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0753332220302961?token=063F3CA5FE829FE276755EF2EE8152EBC11B2906592153330A395D73878C354BC3E701A06960C98C04FA57B0D8AB401A . Accessed August 2023.

Contraception Quiz

Not sure on the method? - Take our dynamic Contraception Quiz.
When it comes to sex, protection is as important as pleasure. But what should one do to start their safe sex journey? Answer some simple questions and based on the responses, we will recommend the next steps.

Take the quiz
External Condom

Compare with similar Contraceptive Methods

Are you wondering if condoms are better than daily pills? Or if you should opt for a birth control implant? We're here to assist you in making this decision. You can select up to 5 contraceptive methods and compare them side by side to weigh the pros and cons of each.

Give a try to our Contraceptive Tool

In the example below, you'll find similar methods to the one you're currently reading about. Feel free to click on any that catch your interest or revisit our Contraceptive Methods page

Our Monthly Top Articles